What Is The Free Papua Movement?
Long before the Free Papua Movement, like so many fashionable nations, West Papua is a product of colonialism. Western New Guinea was colonized by the Dutch at first, while the East was ultimately colonized by the Germans within the late 1800s. (With the south-east additionally being annexed by Britain, because of course the Brits had to be involved somewhere.) As with many different things, this difficult mixture of colonialism was shook up by WW1 and the Treaty of Versailles, granting the German territory to Australia, who by this point have been administering the British territory as well. This split the country quite evenly down the center between the Dutch and the Australians.
In 1975, the Eastern portion of the island was granted independence and have become Papua New Guinea. Meanwhile, the Dutch administered western portion had the unfortunate situation of pushing to become unbiased right subsequent to unbiased Indonesia. The Dutch had been gradually loosening their grip for some time and in 1961, a national parliament had been elected with intentions to declare independence in 1970. Indonesia meanwhile had fashioned largely out of the Dutch East Indies, an amalgamation of a lot of the Dutch island colonies in that area, of which Papua was one. This, in Indonesia’s eyes, gave them claim to Papua despite the enormously completely different political history.
Indonesian president Sukarno pushed heavily for intervention to claim West Papua, though unwillingness to go to war outright prevented an invasion. Ultimately, Sukarno sought the US to function a mediator, leveraging their position as a ‘non-aligned’ country to gain favour, implicitly suggesting that they could ally with the united states if not appeased. The Dutch relented, permitting Indonesia to assume administration of West Papua till such a time as a referendum could possibly be carried out, stirring the beginning of what would turn out to be the Free Papua Movement. This referendum, the ‘Act of Free Choice’, was to determine the way forward for the country and involve a vote on behalf of the whole country. This is, in any case, how referendums function.
Under the new, decidedly much more genocidal leader Suharto took over in Indonesia, it was immediately determined that the New Guineans have been ‘too primitive’ for democracy and instead a traditional Indonesian ‘election of elders’ was performed. This election, held August 2nd 1969, concerned only a hand-picked grouping of just over a thousand West Papuans were allowed to vote. The vote was suspiciously unanimous, supporting integration with Indonesia and thus leading to West Papua turning into the 26th official province of Indonesia. This has understandably led to the Act of Free Choice being labelled the ‘Act of No Selection’, inevitably spurring the Free Papua Movement. With that out of the way, let’s move on.
The Free Papua Movement (Organisasi Papua Merdeka – OPM) was formally based in December of 1963, not lengthy after Indonesia assumed administration of the area however earlier than formal annexation. December first was declared ‘Papuan Independence Day’ and regular flag raising ceremonies started by separatist teams on this date, making up a big portion of the country. When their efforts had been ignored and West Papua was formally annexed by Indonesia, things swiftly began to heat up. On July 1st 1971, three Free Papua Movement commanders declared the Republic of West Papua and drafted a constitution, a functionally symbolic move for which the Papuan folks would work towards, similarly to the Irish proclamation of 1916 which provided a foundation for the independence movement of the early 1920s.
From 1976, the Free Papua Movement went on the offensive, threatening an Indonesian mining company for funding and ultimately conducting mass sabotage campaigns against the company all through the summer of 1977. In 1982, the Free Papua Movement Revolutionary Council was additional established, searching for to gain recognition from international our bodies and grant their struggle further legitimacy. This finally led to a 1984 offensive against the Indonesian military, finally ending with the Free Papua Movement being pushed out of the country into Papua New Guinea.
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